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International Business Discipline academics

Firm Internationalisation

This area involves several projects:

Capability Formation in the New Firm

  • In this project, the formation of capabilities that enable new firms to enter markets overseas rapidly and then to accelerate their internationalization is revealed through empirical studies of early internationalizing firms in both Australia and in the United States. Large scale surveys have been conducted in Australia and the United States, and recently in Italy. This project was funded by an ARC Discovery Grant. A suite of manuscripts for journal submission are in progress.

Inertia in the Internationalization Process

  • This research enquires into the transition from state to changes aspects as originally theorized in the Uppsala internationalization process model. In the original formulation, the transition mechanism was risk reduction through experiential learning. An alternative mechanism through inertia is revealed in this project, with a refined internationalization process model presented.

The Impact of Cluster Location on Internationalization and Innovation

  • This project analyzes the innovation and internationalization performance of Italian manufacturers of ceramic tiles (and related products and services) located within in the industrial district of Sassuolo – the centre of the Italian tile industry – with similar firms located in other regions. The aim is to determine what association, if any, can be established between ‘location’ and ‘performance’ in terms of innovation and internationalization.

Bringing Time Back into Process Research

  • In this project, the internationalization process of the firm is revisited with a view to bringing dynamism back into the process. While process was an original tenet of firm internationalization research, little progress has been made to capture the dynamics in this process. A special issue of Management International Review will call for papers on this topic with contributions from this research team, and co-edited by the team. This project follows from successful publication in the Journal of International Business Studies on qualitative research methods in international business.

International Business

This involves several projects:

National Culture Models

  • This research examines closely the two principal culture models authored by Hofstede and GLOBE. Our articles resolve apparent anomalies between dimensions of the same name in the two models and provide suggestions on the direction of future research using these dimensions. We have provided a critique of published explanations of the GLOBE practices and values scores relationships. Our current work explains the origins and significance of common but invalid cross level inferences made from the nation to individuals in culture literature. Publication success has been achieved with the Journal of International Business Studies.


  • This research develops a more nuanced theory of the multicultural experience, coined N-Culturalism. It proposes that N-culturals are able to maintain salience of multiple cultures at varying strengths, thus functioning with multiple frameworks rather than switching frameworks. This research has implications for organizational behaviours in multicultural settings.


  • This research area focuses on the globalisation phenomenon from a strategic global human resource management perspective. The aim is to explore staffing challenges encountered by inpatriate managers, a concept suggesting the transference of host- or third-country nationals to the home-country organization. Conceptual and theoretical works have contributed to our understanding of this relatively novel staffing trend.

Survival of Foreign R&D Units

  • Almost without exception, previous studies of foreign R&D in multinational companies have been based on cross-sectional data. On the basis of two such data bases, this project traces the survival of a large number of foreign R&D units over the last two decades. In addition to descriptive information on the long term development of these units, the project will develop and test through a set of hypotheses regarding factors affecting the hazard of their termination. The results will inform the debate regarding the effects of international mergers and acquisitions and provide input to our understanding of how MNCs manage international R&D activities.

Psychic Distance and Internal Trade

  • This research explores the relative importance of two types of impediments to international trade: those related to geographic distance, such as freight charges and other costs related to the movement of physical goods, and those related to ‘psychic distance’, such as the costs and difficulties of transferring and interpreting the information necessary to effect international transactions.
  • The project proceeds on the observation that psychic distance perceptions between countries are not symmetric and analyzes the impact of both exporters’ and importers’ perceptions on trade in different categories of goods based on data on bilateral trade between 25 major trading nations over the period 1962-2010.

Organization of the Modern MNE

  • In this project, the nature of the modern MNE is theorized. A concept, new to the literature has been introduced, the worldwide market for market transactions, to conceptualize the nature of the modern MNE. A recent publication in Management International Review has unveiled this concept and applied it to the outsourcing and offshoring phenomena.

Studies of the Evolution of the International Business Field

  • After a successful publication in the journal Scientometrics of an empirical study of the evolution of the international business field, this project will explore issues in the balance of trade in ideas as pertains to the international business field. The nature of IB as a storer of ideas, rather than a source of ideas, is being explored with empirical analysis of articles published in the field’s premier journal, Journal of International Business Studies.

International Business Research Group (IBuRG)


With our globalized world becoming increasingly complex, the field of international business (IB) is undergoing unprecedented transformation, requiring a renewed integrative and interdisciplinary approach to comprehensively inform IB research, practice, and policymaking.

In view of this imperative, the IB discipline in the UQ Business School has launched the International Business Research Group (IBuRG) involving members from academe, business, and government. We are passionate about teaching, research, practice, and policymaking related to the multidimensional world of international business.

The members of IBuRG explore IB issues at multiple levels which include the individual, the firm, and the macro country levels. We conduct path-breaking research that is published in leading journals in IB, strategy, and management, and that informs practice and policymaking in Australia and around the world.


Dr Tao Bai – Lecturer in International Business, School of Business 

Dr Alexandra Kriz – Senior Lecturer, School of Business

Professor Peter Liesch – IB Discipline Leader, School of Business

Dr Miriam Moeller –Senior Lecturer, School of Business

Dr Andre Pekerti – Associate Professor, School of Business

Dr Russell Richards – Senior Lecturer, School of Business

Associate Professor Sunil Venaik – Associate Professor, School of Business

Dr Henry Xu – Senior Lecturer, School of Business

Associate Professor Yunxia Zhu – Associate Professor, School of Business

Recent research

INSIGHTS | What is Cultural Metacognition? Andre Pekerti presents the notion that cultural metacognition is a large, well-stocked, organized, and illuminated toolshed in the mind. Since the introduction of cultural intelligence (CQ), extraordinary numbers of articles have been published associated with CQ.  To date, there is no clear work to explicate cultural-metacognition (CM) - one of the central elements of CQ.  Andre unpacks CM, identifying the elements and mechanics of CM, and how CM functions using knowledge and skills to adapt and generate new appropriate behaviors within and in different cultures.  Cultures are presented as hybrid-systems that socially construct solutions for existing basic problems of survival in societies that are organized in schematic frameworks of interdependent-action-strategies.  Cognition and metacognition are discussed in terms of automatic- and deliberative-processes which are involved in activating one’s interdependent network of schemas in cultural metacognition.  The metaphor of a large, well-stocked, organised, illuminated toolshed in the mind is used to discuss CM processes, where functionally-equivalent toolkits are mixed-and-matched to create new solutions for problems within cultures and cross-culturally.  

INSIGHTS | How would a vehicle manufacturer establish reasonable product lines (including fuel vehicles, new energy vehicles, and a hybrid product line consisting of both fuel and new energy vehicles) while considering the degree of information disclosure and the impact of different carbon regulatory policies on product line strategies? A study conducted by Henry Xu, his visiting PhD student and their colleagues have addressed this issue and provided some interesting insights via a paper published by Omega recently, which is titled “The optimal vehicle product line strategy considering product information disclosure under government carbon regulation”.

INSIGHTS | Global managers must withstand economic, health, and climate crises. Drawing from practitioner and academic sources, Miriam Moeller, Tao Bai and co-authors speak to international human resource and mobility leaders in MNCs offering recommendations on how to navigate disruptive events to strengthened global managerial resilience. Doing so nurtures a pipeline of globally mobile talent able to thrive in complex international work environments.

INSIGHTS | Is there a national culture? The answer is an unequivocal no, according to research by David Midgley, Sunil Venaik and Demetris Christopoulos published in their book titled “A New Theory of Cultural Archetypes: Capturing Global Unity and Local Diversity.” 2023. Palgrave. In our day to day lives, we see people with different cultural values within each country, and similar values across countries. Despite this reality, the popular, stereotypical national culture models – that assume culture to be homogeneous within countries, and heterogeneous across countries – continue to occupy centre-stage in culture related theory, practice, and policy making. Our research aims to disrupt the national culture discourse and align it with reality, by providing clear evidence of cultural differences within countries, cultural similarities across countries, and diverse trajectories of cultural change across the globe. Decision makers must exercise caution in using the popular, stereotype-based national culture models to understand the values of people around the world. 

INSIGHTS | Firm-government relationship: A double-edged sword of forming political connections: In today's world of political uncertainty and extremism, crafting a sound political strategy is crucial for managers, particularly when entering foreign markets with unfamiliar political environments. It is important to carefully navigate these uncharted waters to ensure that the firm's interests align with the host country's political climate, and to mitigate potential risks and challenges. Based on a recent study published in Strategic Management Journal by Tao Bai and his coauthors titled “Cleaning house before hosting new guests: A political path dependence model of political connection adaptation in the aftermath of anticorruption shocks”, political connections enable firms to acquire valuable resources and support from the government, as well as influence government policies to serve their own interests. Nevertheless, the advantages of political connections may be difficult to realize in turbulent political environments characterized by sudden and significant shifts in the power structure. While such connections can aid firms in mitigating institutional uncertainties, maintaining political ties in such volatile conditions can also be risky. Aligning oneself with the wrong politicians could lead to significant losses for firms. Acute and unpredictable power shifts, coupled with intense partisan competition, within a turbulent political system can make it challenging for firms to accurately gauge the value and risk associated with specific political connections. As a result, firms must remain vigilant and carefully assess the potential benefits and drawbacks of cultivating such connections in order to make informed decisions.

Latest news

NEWS | Associate Professor Sunil Venaik and his co-authors Dr Paul Brewer and David Midgley have published a new book titled “Management Research, International Business, and National Culture: Evaluating Hofstede and GLOBE.” The book is published by Routledge/Taylor and Francis.

NEWS | Associate Professor Andre Pekerti to deliver two Visiting Capstone Lectures at the  Indonesian Christian University, Jakarta, Indonesia. 9 June 2023: n-Culturals: Modeling the Multicultural Identity. 16 June 2023: Cultural Metacognition: A Large, Well-stocked, Organized, and Illuminated Toolshed in the Mind.

NEWS | Systems Thinking workshop – Circular Bioeconomy Symposium: Russell Richards has been invited to run a 90 minute workshop on using Systems Thinking/Dynamics as part of the Symposium on Circular Bioeconomy in a Decarbonised World, June 15 - 16, 2023, UQ. Workshop participants (approx. 50) will include students, EMCRs, consultants, and government officials with diverse backgrounds.

NEWS | Systems Thinking workshop – HDR Colloquium and Skills Symposium: Russell has been invited to run a session on systems thinking at the Skills Symposium on July 13th as part of the HDR Colloquium and Skills Symposium ( July 12th and 13th). This workshop is for BEL students, and the aim is to provide a high-level overview of systems thinking and how students from law, business, and economics could use it to inform their personal perspectives or research. In addition, Russell has been called upon to help judge posters at the Colloquium on July 12th.  

NEWS | The importance of managing supply chain risks and disruptions is self-evident during the pandemic – from vaccines to personal care products such as masks, and hand sanitizer. Henry Xu and his colleagues have co-edited a book titled “Supply chain risk mitigation: strategies, methods and applications”, which has been published by Springer. 

NEWS | Miriam Moeller joined the team at the International Journal of Management Reviews (IJMR) as Associate Editor. IJMR is the leading global review journal in Organisation and Management Studies. It is a three-year term, starting June 1.

NEWS | Miriam Moeller was presented a Universitas 21 (U21) Award. The awards are designed to celebrate the achievements of individuals or teams at U21 member institutions whose work has crossed borders and furthered the network’s principles of internationalisation. This award was recognition of Miriam’s sustained work to support our students to become champions of global mobility, and for her impactful research in this area. This is an award that is determined by vote from the U21 members, and the award was presented at the annual Universitas 21 Awards ceremony at the AGM and Presidential Symposium on Thursday, 27 April 2023, at Customs House. The U21 network encompasses 28 Universities globally. UQ is one of only four Australian members of the global Universitas 21.  Read more here.

NEWS | Peter Liesch is a longstanding member of the Academy of International Business (AIB), an academy of some 3400 members from over 90 countries throughout the World. The AIB was formed in 1959, and today, it has thirteen regional chapters and five shared interest groups. In multinational enterprise language, the AIB operates both geographic and product diversification. In 2022, Peter Liesch was elected as President of the AIB. He has served the 2022-2023 year as President-Elect, in 2023-2024 he will be President and in 2024-2025, he will complete his term as Immediate Past President.

NEWS | Peter Liesch is a member of the Governing Board of the AIB-CIBER Doctoral Academy. This academy is a venture formed by the AIB and a group of US Centers for International Business Education and Research, and Leeds University Business School which will offer Ph.D coursework in international business throughout the World. Its aim is to bring doctoral coursework to parts of the World that don’t have the resources to offer advanced coursework in international business. The AIB-Doctoral Academy will be launched at the Annual Conference of the AIB in early July 2023 in Warsaw, Poland.

NEWS | Palgrave/Springer have published a book on culture, titled “A New Theory of Cultural Archetypes: Capturing Global Unity and Local Diversity” co-authored by David Midgley, Sunil Venaik, and Demetris Christopoulos.

NEWS | Alexandra Kriz and Tao Bai were invited to give talks at Trade for the Mekong-Australia Partnerships regional dialogue on ‘The Future of Entrepreneurship in the Mekong’ on 26 & 27 April.